Indonesia is one of the most populous country of the world with a population of 250 million. Yet, hygiene and sanitation still remain a major problem in Indonesia. Globally, Indonesia contains the 2nd highest number of citizens still defecating in the open with 66 million people still practice open defecation. A World Bank study shows that Indonesia loses 2.4% of its overall GDP, or USD 6.3 billion, annually to inadequate sanitation, poor hygiene, and lack of access to safe water.
Responding to this issue, to improve access to sanitation, the government had issue a national policy through the Minister of Health Decree No.3/ 2014 on Community Based Total Sanitation (STBM). STBM is a hygiene and sanitation campaign strategy using behavior change and non-subsidy approaches. Non-subsidy means that with the community awareness and resources/ assets, sanitation facilities can be provided without any subsidy from the government. STBM consists of Five Pillars; STOP Open Defecation, Hand washing with soap, Household drinking water management, Household Solid Waste Management, and Household Liquid Waste Management.
Although it had been legalized as a regulation at ministerial level, the implementation of STBM in Indonesia still face many challenges. The universal target of national sanitation access by 2019 requires IDR 294 trillion. Yet, the national state budget can only cover a maximum 20% of the national sanitation needs. The central government cannot work alone. Regional government need to allocate fund to develop their own sanitation facilities by using the STBM approach framework.
Download here : Budgeting Sanitation & Hygiene Program in Indonesia